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References
Each and every month at WHFoods, we rely on hundreds of research studies to keep you up-to-date on scientific information about food, nutrition, and health. (For more information about the role of science in our website content, please see Our Approach to Science Research). Among the featured sections of our website are 100 food profiles and 31 nutrient profiles. In terms of scientific review, we make these profiles one of our website priorities. In each of these profiles, you will find a dedicated References section that contains an alphabetized list of key scientific references involving that particular food or nutrient. In order to make all of these key food and nutrient research references available to you in a single place, we created this WHFoods Reference Library. You can use the radio buttons below to start with either Foods or Nutrients. Then simply choose the specific food or nutrient of interest, and click on it to obtain an alphabetized list of key research references.

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Apples references

  • Aprikian O, Duclos V, Guyot S et al. Apple Pectin and a Polyphenol-Rich Apple Concentrate Are More Effective Together Than Separately on Cecal Fermentations and Plasma Lipids in Rats. J. Nutr., Jun 2003; 133: 1860 - 1865. 2003.
  • Auclair S, Chironi G, Milenkovic D et al. The regular consumption of a polyphenol-rich apple does not influence endothelial function: a randomised double-blind trial in hypercholesterolemic adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug 4. [Epub ahead of print]. 2010.
  • Barbosa AC, Pinto MD, Sarkar D et al. Varietal Influences on Antihyperglycemia Properties of Freshly Harvested Apples Using In Vitro Assay Models. J Med Food. 2010 Sep 27. [Epub ahead of print]. 2010.
  • Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, Loria CM, Whelton PK. Dietary fiber intake and reduced risk of coronary heart disease in US men and women: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Sep 8;163(16):1897-904. 2003.
  • Boyer J and Liu RH. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits. Nutr J. 2004 May 12;3(1):5. 2004. PMID:15140261.
  • Carrasco-Pozo C, Gotteland M and Speisky H. Protection by apple peel polyphenols against indometacin-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010 Jul;62(7):943-50. 2010.
  • Cho E, Seddon JM, Rosner B, Willett WC, Hankinson SE. Prospective study of intake of fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and carotenoids and risk of age-related maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004 Jun;122(6):883-92. 2004. PMID:15197064.
  • Consumers Union of United States, Inc. Do you know what you're eating? An analysis of US government data on pesticide residues in foods. Consumers Union of United States, Inc. Edward Groth III, PhD, Project Director, Charles M. Benbrook, PhD, Consultant, Public Service Projects Department, Technical Division. Feb 1999. 1999.
  • Cutler GJ, Nettleton JA, Ross JA et al. Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of cancer in postmenopausal women: The Iowa Women's Health Study. Int J Cancer. 2008 August 1; 123(3): 664–671. 2008.
  • Dai Q, Borenstein AR, Wu Y, Jackson JC, Larson EB. Fruit and vegetable juices and Alzheimer's disease: the Kame Project. Am J Med. 2006 Sep;119(9):751-9. 2006. PMID:16945610.
  • Davis PA, Polagruto JA, Valacchi G, Phung A, Soucek K, Keen CL, Gershwin ME. Effect of apple extracts on NF-kappaB activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006 May;231(5):594-8. 2006. PMID:16636308.
  • Flood-Obbagy JE and Rolls BJ. The effect of fruit in different forms on energy intake and satiety at a meal. Appetite. 2009 April; 52(2): 416–422. 2009.
  • Graziani G, D'Argenio G, Tuccillo C et al. Apple polyphenol extracts prevent damage to human gastric epithelial cells in vitro and to rat gastric mucosa in vivo. 2005 February; 54(2): 193-200. doi: 10.1136/gut.2004.046292. 2005.
  • Hanhineva K, Törrönen R, Bondia-Pons I et al. Impact of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism. Int J Mol Sci. 2010; 11(4): 1365-1402. 2010.
  • Holderbaum DF, Kon T, Kudo T et al. Enzymatic Browning, Polyphenol Oxidase Activity, and Polyphenols in Four Apple Cultivars: Dynamics during Fruit Development. HortScience, Aug 2010; 45: 1150 - 1154. 2010.
  • Huxley RR, Neil HAW. The relation between dietary flavonol intake and coronary heart disease mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies,. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2003) 57, 904-908. 2003.
  • Kern M, Tjaden Z, Ngiewih Y, Puppel N, Will F, Dietrich H, Pahlke G, Marko D. Inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor in apple juice extract. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005 Mar 9;49(4):317-328 [Epub ahead of print]. 2005. PMID:15759309.
  • Kovac, A, Skendrovic Babojelic, M, Pavicic, N et al. Influence of harvest time and storage duration on "Cripps Pink" apple cultivar (Malus x domestica Borkh) quality parameters. Ciencia y Tecnolog–a Alimentaria, Vol. 8, N–m. 1, mayo, 2010, pp. 1-6. 2010.
  • Licht TR, Hansen M, Bergström A et al. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin. Microbiol. 2010; 10: 13. Published online 2010 January 20. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-10-13. 2010.
  • Puel C, Quintin A, Mathey J, Obled C, Davicco MJ, Lebecque P, Kati-Coulibaly S, Horcajada MN, Coxam V. Prevention of bone loss by phloridzin, an apple polyphenol, in ovariectomized rats under inflammation conditions. Calcif Tissue Int. 2005 Nov;77(5):311-8. Epub 2005 Nov 16. 2005. PMID:16307390.
  • Setorki M, Asgary S, Eidi A et al. Effects of apple juice on risk factors of lipid profile, inflammation and coagulation, endothelial markers and atherosclerotic lesions in high cholesterolemic rabbits. Lipids Health Dis. 2009; 8: 39. 2009.
  • Solovchenko A and Schmitz-Eiberger M. Significance of skin flavonoids for UV-B-protection in apple fruits. J. Exp. Bot., Aug 2003; 54: 1977 - 1984. 2003.
  • Van Der Sluis AA, Dekker M, Skrede G. Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple juice. 1. Effect of existing production methods. J Agric Food Chem 2002 Dec 4;50(25):7211-9. 2002.

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