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References
Each and every month at WHFoods, we rely on hundreds of research studies to keep you up-to-date on scientific information about food, nutrition, and health. (For more information about the role of science in our website content, please see Our Approach to Science Research). Among the featured sections of our website are 100 food profiles and 31 nutrient profiles. In terms of scientific review, we make these profiles one of our website priorities. In each of these profiles, you will find a dedicated References section that contains an alphabetized list of key scientific references involving that particular food or nutrient. In order to make all of these key food and nutrient research references available to you in a single place, we created this WHFoods Reference Library. You can use the radio buttons below to start with either Foods or Nutrients. Then simply choose the specific food or nutrient of interest, and click on it to obtain an alphabetized list of key research references.

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Tomatoes references

  • Aldrich HT, Salandanan K, Kendall P et al. Cultivar choice provides options for local production of organic and conventionally produced tomatoes with higher quality and antioxidant content. J Sci Food Agric. 2010 Dec;90(15):2548-55. 2010.
  • Anthon GE, LeStrange M, and Barrett DM. Changes in pH, acids, sugars and other quality parameters during extended vine holding of ripe processing tomatoes. J Sci Food Agric. 2011 May;91(7):1175-81. 2011.
  • Anton D, Bender I, Kaart T, et al. Changes in Polyphenols Contents and Antioxidant Capacities of Organically and Conventionally Cultivated Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Fruits during Ripening. Int J Anal Chem. 2017;2017:2367453.
  • Bai Y and Lindhout P. Domestication and Breeding of Tomatoes: What have We Gained and What Can We Gain in the Future? . Ann Bot. 2007 October; 100(5): 1085-1094. Published online 2007 August 23. 2007.
  • Borguini RG and Torres EAFDS. Tomatoes and Tomato Products as Dietary Sources of Antioxidants. Food Reviews International. Philadelphia: 2009. Vol. 25, Iss. 4; p. 313-325. 2009.
  • Cheng HM, Koutsidis G, Lodge JK, et al. Tomato and lycopene supplementation and cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis. 2017 Feb;257:100-108.
  • Cooperstone JL, Tober KL, Riedl KM, et al. Tomatoes protect against development of UV-induced keratinocyte carcinoma via metabolomic alterations. Sci Rep. 2017 Jul 11;7(1):5106.
  • D'Evoli L, Lombardi-Boccia G, and Lucarini M. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes. Foods. 2013 Jul 31;2(3):352-363.
  • Dilis B and Trichopoulou A. Antioxidant Intakes and Food Sources in Greek Adults. The Journal of Nutrition. Bethesda: Jul 2010. Vol. 140, Iss. 7; p. 1274-1279. 2010.
  • Dogukan A, Tuzcu M, Agca CA et al. A tomato lycopene complex protects the kidney from cisplatin-induced injury via affecting oxidative stress as well as Bax, Bcl-2, and HSPs expression. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63(3):427-34. 2011.
  • Etminan M, Takkouche B, and Caamano-Isorna F. The role of tomato products and lycopene in the prevention of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Mar;13(3):340-5. 2004. 2004.
  • Friedman M, Levin CE, Lee SU et al. Tomatine-containing green tomato extracts inhibit growth of human breast, colon, liver, and stomach cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jul 8;57(13):5727-33. 2009.
  • Gonzali S, Mazzucato A, and Perata P. Purple as a tomato: towards high anthocyanin tomatoes. Trends Plant Sci. 2009 May;14(5):237-41. Epub 2009 Apr 8. 2009.
  • Ishida BK, Chapman MH. A comparison of carotenoid content and total antioxidant activity in catsup from several commercial sources in the United States. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Dec 29;52(26):8017-20. 2004. PMID:15612790.
  • Jacob K, Garcia-Alonso FJ, Ros G et al. Stability of carotenoids, phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes during thermal processing. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2010 Jun;60(2):192-8. 2010.
  • Kim YI, Takahashi H, Goto T et al. 9-oxo-10(E),12(E)-octadecadienoic acid derived from tomato is a potent PPAR agonist to decrease triglyceride accumulation in mouse primary hepatocytes. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 2010; DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201000264. 2010.
  • Lee ST, Wong PF, Cheah SC et al. Alpha-tomatine induces apoptosis and inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B activation on human prostatic adenocarcinoma PC-3 cells. PLoS One. 2011 Apr 26;6(4):e18915. 2011.
  • Li Q, Li T, Liu C, et al. Potential physicochemical basis of Mediterranean diet effect: Ability of emulsified olive oil to increase carotenoid bioaccessibility in raw and cooked tomatoes. Food Res Int. 2016 Nov;89(Pt 1):320-329.
  • Lippi G and Targher G. Tomatoes, lycopene-containing foods and cancer risk. Br J Cancer. 2011 Mar 29;104(7):1234-5. Epub 2011 Feb 22. 2011.
  • Mackinnon ES, Rao AV, and Rao LG. Dietary restriction of lycopene for a period of one month resulted in significantly increased biomarkers of oxidative stress and bone resorption in postmenopausal women. J Nutr Health Aging. 2011 Feb;15(2):133-8. 2011.
  • Mathieu S, Dal Cin V, Fei Z et al. Flavour compounds in tomato fruits: identification of loci and potential pathways affecting volatile composition. J Exp Bot. 2009 January; 60(1): 325-337. Published online 2008 December 16. 2009.
  • Moneruzzaman KM, Hossain ABMS, Sani W et al. Effect of Stages of Maturity and Ripening Conditions on the Biochemical Characteristics of Tomato. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Year: 2008 Vol: 4 Issue: 4 Pages/record No.: 336-344. 2008.
  • Niu K, Guo H, Kakizaki M, et al. A tomato-rich diet is related to depressive symptoms among an elderly population aged 70 years and over: A population-based, cross-sectional analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 144, Issues 1—2, 10 January 2013, pages 165-170.
  • Nohara T, Ono M, Ikeda T et al. The Tomato Saponin, Esculeoside A. J Nat Prod. 2010 Sep 20. [Epub ahead of print]. 2010.
  • Pal HC, Pearlman RL, and Afaq F. Fisetin and Its Role in Chronic Diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;928:213-244.
  • Palozza P, Parrone N, Catalano A et al. Tomato lycopene and inflammatory cascade: basic interactions and clinical implications. Curr Med Chem. 2010;17(23):2547-63. 2010.
  • Paur I, Lilleby W, Bohn SK, et al. Tomato-based randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients: Effect on PSA. Clinical Nutrition, Volume 36, Issue 3, June 2017, pages 672-679.
  • Reboul E, Borel P, Mikail C et al. Enrichment of Tomato Paste with 6% Tomato Peel Increases Lycopene and (beta)-Carotene Bioavailability in Men. J Nutr. 2005 Apr;135(4):790-4 2005. 2005.
  • Saini RK, Zamany AJ, and Keum YS. Ripening improves the content of carotenoid, α-tocopherol, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruits. Biotech. 2017 May;7(1):43.
  • Salem S, Salahi M, Mohseni M et al. Major dietary factors and prostate cancer risk: a prospective multicenter case-control study. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63(1):21-7. 2011.
  • Sesso HD, Liu S, Gaziano JM et al. Dietary lycopene, tomato-based food products and cardiovascular disease in women. J Nutr Jul;133(7): 2336-41. 2003. 2003.
  • Shieh JM, Cheng TH, Shi MD et al. a-Tomatine suppresses invasion and migration of human non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H460 cells through inactivating FAK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and reducing binding activity of NF-kB. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2011 Jul;60(3):297-310. 2011.
  • Silaste ML, Alfthan G, Aro A, et al. Tomato juice decreases LDL cholesterol levels and increases LDL resistance to oxidation. Br J Nutr. 2007 Dec;98(6):1251-8. 2007. PMID:17617941.
  • Slimestad R and Verheul M. Properties of chalconaringenin and rutin isolated from cherry tomatoes. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Apr 13;59(7):3180-5. Epub 2011 Mar 4. 2011.
  • Talvas J, Caris-Veyrat C, Guy L et al. Differential effects of lycopene consumed in tomato paste and lycopene in the form of a purified extract on target genes of cancer prostatic cells. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jun;91(6):1716-24. Epub 2010 Apr 14. 2010.
  • Tan HL, Thomas-Ahner JM, Grainger EM et al. Tomato-based food products for prostate cancer prevention: what have we learned? . Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2010 Sep;29(3):553-68. 2010.
  • Tang GY, Meng X, Li Y, et al. Effects of Vegetables on Cardiovascular Diseases and Related Mechanisms. Nutrients. 2017 Aug 10;9(8).
  • Torres-Urrutia C, Guzman L, Schmeda-Hirschmann G et al. Antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic activity in vitro of extracts from selected fruits and vegetables. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2011 Apr;22(3):197-205. 2011.
  • Valderas-Martinez P, Chiva-Blanch G, Casas R, et al. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial. Nutrients. 2016 Mar 16;8(3):170.
  • Vinha AF, Barreira SV, Costa AS, et al. Pre-meal tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) intake can have anti-obesity effects in young women? Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2014 Dec;65(8):1019-26.
  • Woo PM, Suk CY, and Hyeob LS. Quality changes in tomato fruits caused by genotype and environment interactions. Korean Journal of Horticultural Science & Technology, 2017, 35, 3, pp. 361-372.
  • Wood M. Tangerine Tomatoes Top Reds in Preliminary Lycopene Study. Agricultural Research. Washington: Feb 2011. Vol. 59, Iss. 2; p. 15. 2011.
  • Zeng Z, He W, Jia Z, et al. Lycopene Improves Insulin Sensitivity through Inhibition of STAT3/Srebp-1c-Mediated Lipid Accumulation and Inflammation in Mice fed a High-Fat Diet. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2017 May 4. doi: 10.1055/s-0043-101919. [Epub ahead of print]

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